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When referring to storage capacity, 210, or 1024 in decimal notation.

Karnaugh map:
A graphical representation of a truth table that is used to show the relationship of Boolean operations to aid in designing optimized combinational logic circuits. The Karnaugh map is an extension and a generalization of a Veitch diagram. Contrast with Veitch diagram. (Figure 35 - Karnaugh map).

knowledge base.

knowledge-based system.

The part of the operating system that provides its most basic functions.

Reduction of the space between two adjacent characters. For example, overlapping character boxes to print or display cursive writing.

Kerr rotation:
The rotation of the plane of polarization of an optical beam upon reflection from the recording layer as caused by the magneto-optical Kerr effect.

(1) In organization of data, an identifier that is part of a set of data elements. (2) In computer security, a variable-length bit string that controls the operations of encryption or decryption. (3) On a keyboard, a manually actuated mechanism that performs a specific operation or causes the display of a particular character.

A set of keys, such as on a user terminal, text processor, or typewriter. (Figure 36 - Keyboard).

keyboard overlay:
Plastic or paper decals installed on a keyboard to let a user relabel the keys. Contrast with keyboard template.

keyboard punch:
Synonym for keypunch.

keyboard template:
A piece of plastic or heavy paper that fits over or around part of the keyboard and has information printed on it about the meanings of the keys. Contrast with keyboard overlay.

key-encrypting key:
A key used for encryption and decryption of other keys.

key-exchange key:
A key used for encrypted transmission of keys.

key management:
The generation, storage, secure distribution, and application of keys in accordance with a security policy.

A small group of keys that are set up for convenience and greater flexibility such that they are clustered together physically on a keyboard. For example, a numeric keypad or a cursor control keypad.

A keyboard-actuated punch that punches holes in a data medium. Synonymous with keyboard punch.

The action of striking a key.

keystroke counter:
A device that counts the number of keystrokes.

keystroke verification:
The determination of the accuracy of data entry by the re-entry of the same data through a keyboard.

key transformation:
A function that maps a set of keys into a set of integers, which can be used to determine the location of the data elements that correspond to the keys.

A word in a title or document that is significant and informative for retrieval or classification.

In computer security, a basis for a set of schemes for public-key cryptography.

Synonym for knowledge robot.

(1) An organized, integrated collection of facts and generalizations. (2) Information representing human experience and expertise. The knowledge built into an expert system includes facts, events, and rules. (Figure 16 - Interrelationships of data).

knowledge acquisition:
The process of locating, collecting, and refining knowledge and converting it into a form that can be further processed by a knowledge-based system. Knowledge acquisition normally implies the intervention of a knowledge engineer, but it is also an important component of machine learning.

knowledge base (K-base):
A database that contains inference rules and information about human experience and expertise in a domain. In self-improving systems, the knowledge base additionally contains information resulting from the solution of previously encountered problems.

knowledge-based system (KBS):
A computer system that provides for solving problems in a given field or application area by drawing inferences from a knowledge base. The term "knowledge-based system" is sometimes used synonymously with "expert system", though it is usually not restricted to expert knowledge. Some knowledge-based systems have self-learning capabilities.

knowledge engineer:
A person who obtains knowledge from a domain expert and other knowledge sources and who organizes it as a knowledge base.

knowledge engineering:
The discipline concerned with acquiring knowledge from domain experts and other knowledge sources and incorporating it into a knowledge base. Sometimes "knowledge engineering" refers more broadly to the art of designing and building expert systems and knowledge-based systems.

knowledge engineering tool:
A software tool designed to facilitate the rapid development of knowledge-based systems. The knowledge engineering tool incorporates specific strategies for knowledge representation, inference, and control as well as elementary modeling constructs for easy handling of typical problems.

knowledge management:
The systematic management of the knowledge processes of creating, identifying, encoding, distributing, and applying information across an organization.

knowledge representation:
The process of encoding and storing knowledge in a knowledge base. Knowledge representation also refers to the result of this process.

knowledge robot:
Component of a search engine that collects information from network resources. Synonymous with knowbot, search robot.

knowledge source:
The source of information from which a knowledge base has been created for a specific type of problem.

knowledge tree:
A hierarchical semantic network such as a tree-like directed graph.

known-plaintext attack:
An analytical attack in which a cryptanalyst possesses a substantial quantity of corresponding plaintext and ciphertext.

koala pad:
A graphics tablet with a stylus to move the pointer and to confirm the position of the pointer by pressing down on the stylus.

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